Festivalśl (FR. festival . from lat. festivus is a holiday) — mass festival, screening (review) achievements in music, theatre, variety, circus or cinema.

Originally music festivals in the early 18th century in Britain, which were musical. In the 20th century became widespread international festivals held between countries. In the UssR the first music festivals were held in 1930-ies. Most of the now well-known and popular festivals appeared in the 1950-ies. Their development and constantly increasing volume of activity associated not only with new types of spectacular communication in the structure of modern urban culture, but also with global political changes. At that time, adopted the concept of a single European space in which each country, preserving the historically established political institutions, national and cultural identity, is part of a General interstate space. Along with the formation of a new international political order and this has led to folding of the common European cultural space, in which the largest network of international festivals plays an important integrating role as a prestigious field for international artistic exchange, demonstration of the best achievements of national cultures.

Great importance in the struggle for peace have world festivals of youth and students. Some festivals of youth and students was held under the slogan “For peace and friendship” and “solidarity, peace and friendship”.

Festivals are held in large enclosed spaces, and in the modern world format outdoor “open air” in fields, parks, natural architectural and historic interiors of castles and other places of interest.

Open air music event, concert, festival, which takes place outdoors. Opera festivals open air is often carried out in the natural, architectural and historic interiors in the territory of castles, squares and other attractions. The most famous of those is the Opera “Aida” in the Egyptian pyramids.

In case of bad weather for the speakers can be mounted the stage and stretched an awning, which is also necessary for protection of equipment.

On-site activities can also be located bars, toilets, medical room, kitchen, etc. which is especially important for big festivals and open-air festivals held away from civilization.

ViennáLe — an exhibition, a festival or a contest, held once in two years.The most famous Biennale — Venice, has existed since 1895. Since the second half of the twentieth century a major international Biennale exhibition become the main venue for the presentation of contemporary art.

Fiè́one hundred (Spanish Fiesta ) is a traditional folk festival held in Latin America and Spain. Spoken also in other Mediterranean countries, primarily in the regions of the Old Romagna and among Latin American diasporas all over the world, among the large Latin American community in the USA. Fiesta is a typical Mediterranean concept, which originated during the Roman Empire. The Latin word “festa” meant folk festival, which was attended by residents of the community or a city block. Unlike Russian festivals, fiestas are very often held in the evening or at night when the heat of the day subsides, and often continue until dawn. Sometimes during this Fiesta was held and in the afternoon, for example, before fighting with the animals, before the bullfight, etc. In modern romance languages, the concept of Fiesta and its derivatives used in relation to any party or feast.

For the duration of the festivals can be divided into short-term (from several days to two weeks), medium term (two weeks to one month) and long term (from one month to one year).

Additional, but no less important characteristic of the festival is its status in the cultural life. From this point of view, you can select international, national and regional festivals. The differences between them, at first glance, can be sufficiently conditional, since in any of the above festivals can take part of the international cast of performers.

The venue also plays an important role in shaping the artistic concept, an attractive image in the minds of listeners, viewers and even marketing strategy. One of the world’s most popular jazz festivals in Montreux (Switzerland) is held annually in July on the shores of lake Geneva summer on a specially equipped stage area fifteen kilometers from the city. Lovers of jazz music, among which a large number of fans of this particular festival, camp and specially organized campsites for caravans (cars with trailers in the form of a house). Minor expenses of visitors of festival concerts on accommodation and democratic forms of its implementation, as well as the relative cheapness of tickets attract the youth and the middle class from almost all European countries. Guest musicians, including stars of the first magnitude, are living virtually under the same conditions as their grateful audience. And one of the most attractive features of the festival in Montreux are jam sessions featuring leading jazz musicians in the world, which are held free of charge every day after the evening concert for everyone in the improvised music bar. The concept of the festival is the combination of music and relax and enjoy the beautiful natural landscape.

Varieties of festivals:

· Film festival

Cannes film festival “Cahiers du cinema”

International film festival “Message to Man” St. Petersburg

Indian international film festival

Moscow international film festival

Film festival Karlovy Vary

· Theatre festival

· Festival d’avignon

· “Golden mask”

· Music festival

· Music festival in Salzburg

· Music festival in Bayreuth

· Music festival “Prague spring”

· Music festival “Sayan ring”

· Music festival “Slavic Bazaar”

· Russian Sobinov music festival

· Early music festival Earlymusic

· Festival “Kazan autumn”, classical music Rachmaninov festival of contemporary music “Concordia” (Kazan)

· International Festival of the Youth of the world in St. Petersburg and in Europe

· Ballet festival

· International ballet Gurievsky festival in Kazan

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