Questions for self
1. Give a brief description of the culture of the European middle Ages.
2. Explain what is the essence of medieval culture.
3. What, in Your opinion, what is the uniqueness of the Byzantine culture?
4. Describe the most famous monument of Byzantine architecture is the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.
5. That relate to the characteristics of Vizantija?
6. Bring the realities of modern life that can be considered a legacy of the middle Ages (Institute, symbol, monument, tradition, tradition, clothes, food, beverage, spices).
In the middle Ages in the culture of the common people (peasants and townspeople) are preserved archaic elements of culture: idolatry, sacrifice, ritual holidays (winter, spring). Strict ideology of the Church were opposed by people’s laughter, laughter culture, embodying the idea of the universal update: laughter not only deny the imperfection of the world, but transformed by renewing it. In medieval carnival festival features laughter as the Challenger and at the same time asserting power are exposed and appear in their true, full form.
Medieval culture contains, as an enzyme, festivals and spectacles, through which the lower layers are closer to ensure that they are removed as a result of the deepening class divide, and the upper class through the holiday and circuses demonstrate the idea of public service.
Special importance belongs to the carnival folk fest open air, which was followed by street parades, masquerades, theatrical games. The carnival was typical for urban culture, as it involved large groups of people. Almost a quarter life (up to three months in a year) the people of medieval Europe gave to the carnival. People’s festive laughter perception of the world in a significant way made up for the seriousness and unilateralism official religion and the state ideology. People’s laughter sounded in carnivals, Comedy acts and processions on holidays “fools”, “donkeys”, in a parody of the works, the elements frivolously-areal speeches, the jokes, the antics of jesters and “fools”, at home, on the town with their “bean” kings and Queens.
By analyzing the characteristics of carnival laughter, Bakhtin notes that first and foremost this is a nationwide, festive laughter. In addition, laughter is fun, gleeful, mocking, deriding. And that “the people do not exclude themselves from becoming the whole world… one significant difference people’s festive laughter from purely satirical laughter of the new time”. Carnival knows no division into performers and spectators. Carnival does not contemplate, in it live . and live all . because the idea of his he popular. While carnival is done, there is no other life besides carnival. Him nowhere to go, because carnival does not know the spatial boundaries. During carnival time life is subject only to its laws, i.e. the laws of its own freedom .
The first theatrical genres fit in a lot of authentic religious content. Jester – hero costume party, his representative, improviser, whose scene – the whole world, and the Comedy of the action of life itself. Along with the official work on the basis of religious mysteries there are new genres: a miracle play, morality play, literary drama, parody. Vividly authentic illustrates the content of a French farce with provocative titles of itinerant groups “Holey pants”, “Clown”. Special language carnival of shapes and symbols manifests itself parodied in the Church ceremonies, ridiculed errant knights, greedy merchants, the sellers of indulgences, stupid husbands and wives. Comedians complement mystery farce (farce from the Latin “filling”, “ground”), with arbitrary representations. A perfect example of such beliefs is embodied by Peter Bruegel the Elder in “the Battle of carnival and Lent” (1559). About the origins of folk art of itinerant actors and musicians (XI century) narrate fragments of frescoes of St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev “Buffoons”. In world literature the grotesque images of heroes unsurpassed transferred Francois Rabelais (1494-1553). His novel “Gargantua and Pantagruel” – encyclopedia of folk-carnival laughter.
The carnival was turning the world in such a way that the jester was the king and could give orders, poor dad and could rule the world. Inverted world demanded of masks and disguises, contrasting himself – sordid, carnal despised.
The contradictions between the individual and society were revealed through the carnival, in which people showed all inaccessible outside the carnival freedom, laughing at the hypocrisy and mendacity of the social environment.
In the folk culture of the middle Ages (France, Germany) has developed the urban genre satire – Fabio (from the Latin fabula) – poetical works of 200-300 lines with comic or satirical story. Fabio (German swanky) ridiculed the vices, the Church, the state. In France the most famous writer of funny stories and fables was Rutbah (“the Cow, the priest’s cow”), in Germany – shtriker music. Another genre of urban literature – didactic poem and the so-called “animal” epic. Famous work of this genre – French “novel about a Fox”.
Specific cultural phenomenon of the reporting period was the work of vagantov (from the Latin “vagari” – to wander). Stray students moved from country to country, from city to city, writing brave poems that criticized the vices of society. Style poetic form was formed as a reworking of the Latin style and the style of the ancient poets. the official Church persecuted the vagantov – burlesque performers, love, drinking songs for freethinking, antistatichnost.
Each new generation of students, starting from the seventies of the XX century, in a new way meets a well-known essay of vagantov that were put to music D. Tukhmanov, “Goodbye to Berlin”: